Analysing Company Accounts: What you need to know


Analysing company accounts and understanding financial statements is essential for running any business. It’s important to understand the trends, growth and profitability of a company, as well as its obligations and potential risks. In this article, we will discuss how to effectively analyse your company accounts and gain an understanding of their financials.

Introduction to Analysing Company Accounts

Any business owner or manager needs to be able to read and understand their company’s financial statements. Not only will this give you insights into the overall health of your business, but it will also help you make informed decisions about where to allocate resources and how to grow your company.

There are three main financial statements that you should familiarise yourself with: the balance sheet, the income statement, and the cash flow statement. In this article, we’ll give you a step-by-step guide on how to analyse these key documents.

The balance sheet provides a snapshot of your company’s assets, liabilities, and equity at a given point in time. This information can be helpful in assessing your company’s financial health and determining whether or not it has the necessary resources to meet its obligations.

The income statement shows your company’s revenue, expenses, and net income over a period of time. This information can be useful in evaluating your company’s profitability and identifying areas where costs can be reduced.

The cash flow statement tracks the movement of cash in and out of your business over a period of time. This information is important in assessing your company’s ability to generate cash flows and pay its bills.

Understanding Financial Ratios

When it comes to analysing company accounts, one of the most important things to understand are financial ratios. These ratios provide insights into an enterprise’s financial health, and can be used to compare companies within the same industry.

There are many different types of financial ratios, but some of the most important ones to know are:

Liquidity Ratios:

These ratios measure a company’s ability to pay its short-term debts.

Solvency Ratios:

These ratios measure a company’s ability to pay its long-term debts.

Activity Ratios:

These ratios measure a company’s efficiency in using its assets and resources.

Profitability Ratios:

These ratios measure a company’s bottom line – how much profit it is making.

Understanding financial ratios is essential for anyone who wants to analyse a company’s accounts. By knowing which ratios to look at, and what they mean, you can get a clear picture of a company’s financial health.

Knowing Your Numbers: Key Performance Indicators

As a business owner or manager, you need to know your numbers. This means understanding your key performance indicators (KPIs). KPIs are the financial and non-financial metrics that help you track progress and gauge success against your company’s goals.

There are many different KPIs you can track, but which ones you choose to focus on will depend on your specific business goals. To choose the right KPIs for your business, start by asking yourself these questions:

  • What are my most important goals?
  • What metrics will help me track progress towards these goals?
  • What data do I need to collect to calculate these metrics?
  • How often do I need to measure these KPIs?

Once you’ve identified the KPIs you want to track, start collecting data and calculating results. Remember, your KPIs should be reviewed and updated regularly to ensure they remain relevant and useful.

Analysing Cash Flow Statements

When it comes to analysing company accounts, one of the most important things to focus on is the cash flow statement. This document tells you everything you need to know about a company’s inflows and outflows of cash, and can give you valuable insights into its financial health.

To get started, let’s take a look at what a cash flow statement actually is and what information it contains. Then we’ll dive into how to read and interpret this crucial document.

What Is A Cash Flow Statement?

A cash flow statement is a financial document that summarises a company’s inflows and outflows of cash over a given period of time. It shows you how much cash the company has generated or used during that period, as well as where that cash came from (operating activities, investing activities, or financing activities).

This information can be incredibly useful in assessing a company’s financial health. For example, if you see that a company has consistently negative cash flows, it may be in danger of running out of money. On the other hand, if you see strong positive cash flows, this may be indicative of a healthy business.

Identifying Potential Problems with Balance Sheets

Any experienced investor will tell you that one of the most important aspects of conducting due diligence on a company is analysing their balance sheet. This document provides a snapshot of the company’s financial health, including their assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity.

However, analysing a balance sheet can be tricky, as there are a number of potential red flags that could indicate financial troubles. In this section, we’ll go over some of the most common problems to look out for when reviewing a balance sheet.

One of the first things you’ll want to check is the company’s asset turnover ratio. This metric measures how efficiently a company is using its assets to generate revenue. If the ratio is low, it could be an indication that the company is inefficient or that its products are not in high demand.

Another key metric to look at is the debt-to-equity ratio. This ratio gives you an idea of how much debt the company has relative to its shareholders’ equity. A high debt-to-equity ratio could mean that the company is over leveraged and may have difficulty meeting its financial obligations in the future.

Finally, you’ll also want to take a close look at the cash flow statement. This document shows how much cash the company has on hand and how it has been generated over time. If you see large negative cash flows or declining cash balances over time, it could be an indication that the company is in financial distress.

Tips for Analysing Reports and Statements

When analysing a company’s reports and statements, there are a few key things to keep in mind. First, it is important to understand the difference between primary and secondary sources of information. Primary sources are directly from the company, such as financial statements and annual reports. Secondary sources are from outside the company, such as analyst reports or research articles.

Second, it is important to remember that all numbers are estimates. Financial statement numbers are based on a variety of assumptions and methods, so it is important to understand how these were calculated before drawing conclusions from them.

Third, it is helpful to use ratios and other comparative measures when analysing company accounts. This can help you spot trends over time or compare a company’s performance to its peers.

Finally, keep in mind that the management of a company has conflicts of interest. They may be motivated to manipulate financial statements for their own benefit. As an investor, it is important to be aware of these potential conflicts and take them into account when making decisions about investing in a company.


Understanding what you are looking at when analysing company accounts is essential for any investor. With the help of this step-by-step guide, you now have all the information needed to analyse a set of accounts and make more informed investment decisions.

It’s important to remember that understanding accounting principles can take time and practice before feeling comfortable in making sound judgements on how well a company has performed over a given period of time. Taking your time to carefully evaluate each line item will give you valuable insight into both current and future performance – something that every investor should strive for.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *